It is well known that the earliest Jewish use of the Star of David was as the seal of Joshua Ben Asayahu found in Sidon (Second Temple period, 6th century B.C.E.) and then as a carved decoration in a synagogue frieze on fourth-century synagogue at Capernaum (Kfar Nachum) in Israel.
Photo courtesy of Dan Mahler from Hofesh Organization
There's an archeological debate about the dating of Capernaum synagogue:
Paul Roche represents the old theory about this dating problem and writes in his book, The Bible's Greatest Stories (2001 Page 380)
Capernaum was a prosperous city became the center of Jesus' Galilean ministry, perhaps because Peter had a house there. The Franciscans, who have been constantly excavating the ruins of Capernaum since the 1920s have identified Peter's house…Recent archeological finds have also unearthed the ruins of a first-century synagogue which is almost certainly the one in which Jesus preached.
James D G Dunn represents the more updated theory in his book, Jesus Remembered: Christianity in the Making (2003 Page 318) and writes that it dates from 4th or 5th century CE although underneath it there are earlier walls of houses and stone pavements
The reason for this re-dating is that archeologists Corbo and Loffreda excavated underneath the synagogue and discovered coins from the 5th century.
This re dating is very significant since there are numerous reviews about the history of this symbol that start with saying that this artifact is the earliest Star of David that was found in a synagogue. Even if there are ruins underneath the synagogue the artifacts are belonging to the later date. Now it is not only about re dating – it is also about updating.